The Loudons and the Gardening Press: A Victorian Cultural Industry (Nineteenth Century Series
Across London, so-called divide a three-story, conical greenhouse measuring feet in Madeira houses were created to treat people suffering from diameter and feet high.
In London sumptive cooks, bilious butlers, paralytic pages, hysterical especially, where miasmas, pollution, and coal smoke were housemaids, and feverish footmen. In , Hood argued in favor of warming by hot water by explaining how both animals and vegetables could be harmed by improper methods of warming. It is, in reality, to every building what the breath of life is to the human frame. In the cost of nineteenth century—were unimpressed with the prospect of crown and plate glass was dramatically reduced in Britain environmental concerns encroaching on other aesthetic con- when Parliament abolished the Glass Excise Tax.
Report- siderations. In , the English architect Alfred Bartholo- horticulture and gardening stood to benefit most from this mew stated plainly in his Specifications for Practical Architecture tax exemption.
The natural philosopher The Lancet: in applying his knowledge to architecture, forgets that it is one of the fixed laws of nature to clothe its deep science in external The fact of the multiplicity of windows being an immense ad- beauty. Far from having a cordial working The result is, that among architects a multiplicity of windows is relationship, the architect and the engineer engaged in recur- considered a defect instead of a beauty, and studiously avoided.
The conflict came to a head and that, however detrimental to architectural beauty windows when rival groups of workers arrived on-site and were forced may be considered to be, their importance in a hygienic point to resolve the two seemingly incongruous positions as con- of view, will be the paramount consideration. In , the hothouse designer and nurseryman J. In this way, Loudon at- schism between science and architecture, criticism of the tempted to intervene in the future of architectural practice by building overshadows the important role that large, public advancing scientific and medical views.
Two of the earliest glasshouses completed in London that was a milestone event. Subsequent experiments to regulate were open to the public were the conservatory of the Royal the atmosphere inside the temporary House of Commons Horticultural Society at Chiswick , executed by the designed by Robert Smirke were discussed in the Architec- construction firm of D. In consultation with John Lindley, William Hooker, increasing the duration of human life.
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For example, in his Useful Hints on Ventilation Similarly, Paxton developed his design for the Great , engineer William Walker appealed to the senti- Exhibition in close cooperation with civil engineer Charles ments of Gothic revivalists by remarking on the utility of Fox, an expert in structural ironwork and partner in the con- turrets, spires, and towers for ventilating vitiated air, argu- struction firm of Fox and Henderson. Loudon with D. A nearby boiler house provided a constant supply of the scientific press, and in he founded the Horticultural steam to drive the industrial machines on display, and an elab- Register, followed by his Magazine of Botany three years later.
These included ventilation and ers and the public. Temperatures inside the building were ju- solar control as well glazing technologies and methods of reg- diciously measured at two-hour intervals throughout the ulating condensation Figure Conservatories and winter gardens at- houses, as if on purpose to make invalids of the strongest con- tracted the interest of health seekers who sought out warm stitutions in the country. Nicknamed the the Royal Academy in , he drew attention to the fact that Crystal Sanatorium, the building incorporated a conservatory heating systems using hot water could be effective in public roof that was feet long and 72 feet wide to provide pa- buildings, dwellings, and greenhouses alike.
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Richardson cited Dr. In addition to assisting Paxton on the design of the efits of a southern climate without the expense and dis- Great Conservatory at Chatsworth —40 and collaborat- comfort of journeying to it. Moreover, by engaging in productive dialogue However, the extent to which environmental thought with other scientific and mechanical disciplines, gardening transformed building practices was not determined by tech- literature provided a forum where numerous fields— nology alone.
As William Taylor has shown, transformations including architecture—converged under the banner of inside and outside the Victorian home were also instrumental popular science and taste. Stimulated by conservatories, fern cases, aquariums, and other natural his- the work of scientific gardeners who sustained exotic living tory curios.
In lieu of a well-lit and warmed interior, could be relocated inside buildings through the coupling of Turner preferred to paint in a ruinous and leaky open-air stu- architecture with mechanical systems. Crucially, transfers dio. As experiments Located at the intersection of horticulture, medicine, and by gardeners seeking to conquer the natural world stimulated technology, the glasshouse was a critical medium through thought across multiple disciplines, the glasshouse exerted a which architecture and the sciences communicated.
His interests include the social and with efforts to reconstruct foreign climates across England.
Gardening for Ladies
See William M. Taylor, The Vital tion with broader social and cultural themes.
Shteir, Cultivating these two glasshouses and their adaptability for human comfort. The term scientific gardener appears frequently throughout John C. Brown, , — Cambridge, Mass. Studies in Evaluation New York: W.
Norton, , ; Nikolaus Pevs- John C. Batsford, ; May Woods in Neville S. Quoted in Priscilla Boniface, ed.
Richard Perren, Agriculture in Depression, — Cambridge: Used to prolong the development of plants so that fruits, vegetables, and vol. Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening, 3rd ed.
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London: Cambridge, Mass. New methods of glass manufacturing enabled the production of larger Chicago Press, The repeal of the Glass Excise Tax See Elliott, Technics and Architecture, — Elisabeth B. MacDougall Washington, D. Ann B. The predominant characteristic of commercial magazines for women, during this period, was fashion which was being complemented by an expansion of topics that could be considered relevant to women.
She did not have the professional resources to identify this trend and its commercial potential in order to persuade Bradbury and Evans to allow her to continue and meet the interests of the significantly changed marked for middle-class readers in the s. This gendered audience had not yet grown to warrant a weekly Saturday paper. Moreover, the manner in which women had been able to contribute to public debate on science for a gendered or heterogeneous audience was being dismantled.
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In order to publish their opinions on natural history, in the late eighteenth-century, women had adopted the familiar format where letters, domestic settings and conversations served as the means by which women could communicate their opinions about scientific subjects without censure. Further conventions such as the maternal teacher, didactic moral tales and botany represented as an improving hobby also emerged from the imperative to protect the respectability of female writing.
Botanical science now moved away from the possibility of discursive female authority, by imposing a standardised text reliant on formal scholastic education, to which most women did not have access. It completely eschews the familiar format and in particular its maternal narrator. The new title dispenses with the address to a gendered audience and the protection that the familiar format had offered female science writers. She considered it her professional responsibility to do so. Hughes Abercrombie went on to publish a range of popularly received books on different horticultural techniques and specialism.
Price also gave great consideration to improvement, taste and beauty in landscape design. Publishing a book of poetry, The Mummy , and a second novel Stories of a Bride as well as being a salaried contributor to the Literary Gazette edited by William Jerdan. It is in this circle that the Loudons could have had mutual friends and have been introduced.
Jerdan was the same age as John Loudon, a Scot who had also moved to London to start his professional career. After working on a range of different professional and news orientated publication Jerdan assumed editorship of the Literary Gazette in and remained there until At this time he was a significant contributor to Punch and had taught at the University of London.
He was a fellow of the Geological Society from , appointed vice secretary in and responsible for the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. He is better known for his popular science articles written for the Cornhill Magazine. Laurel Brake and Marysa Demoor. Colquhoun, K.
London: Fourth Estate, Davidoff, L. London: Hutchinson, Davis, Sarah. Desmond, R. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks Finch, J. London: George, Allen and Unwin, Hughes, K. Jerdan, William. The Autobiography of William Jerdan. London: Arthur Hall, Virtue and Co. March Self-Instruction for Young Gardeners. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, Loudon, J. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans Mumm, S. Price, Uvedale. Sir Uvedale Price on the Picturesque: with an essay on the origin of taste and much original matter. London: Wm. Orr and Co. Rauch, A. Ruth, J. Columbus: Ohio University Press, Schenker, Heath.
Shteir, A. Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science. Tjaden, W. Tosh, J. London: Yale University Press, Charles Darwin—the power of place. Princeton: Princeton University Press; The Correspondence of Charles Darwin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Accessed 20 May Camuzet Nouvelles observations sur le Cytise-Adam.
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Comparative principles of physiology. London: J. Caspary R. On hybrids obtained by grafting. Graft hybrids and chimeras. Botanical Gazette.