Delivery and controlled release of bioactives in foods and nutraceuticals
Delivery and Controlled Release of Bioactives in Foods and Nutraceuticals
Thus, it ensures quick response and a continued effect against free radicals. But curcumin has two hydroxyl groups, one less than resveratrol, so theoretically resveratrol should interact strongly with the wall material and release profile should be reverse for the two PPs.
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Hence, there might be some other interaction or mechanism responsible for the observed release rate unlike stated by Coradini et al. The highest EE was obtained by spray-drying method for emulsified core.
Encapsulation loading of nisin and antioxidant extract was affected by core dispersion method whereas drying method influenced water activity and encapsulation yield. Freeze drying gave higher a w with an emulsified core. Higher encapsulation loading for both bioactive was obtained with nonemulsified core. Thus, combination of numerous factors results in microcapsules with different properties which provides an opportunity to deliver active ingredients as per the food system.
Like other studies, synergistic antioxidant property was observed for co-encapsulated extracts from two mushroom species Suillus luteus Sl and Coprinopsis atramentaria Ca Ribeiro et al. The storage studies for 7 days in cottage cheese showed good results, confirming protection and sustained release provided by maltodextrin. Also, nutritional value of the cottage cheese was preserved but storage studies for extended period would give a better picture on their efficacy for functional food applications. A very interesting study showing the importance of appropriate selection of two encapsulating bioactive in order to obtain synergism was conducted by Kamezaki et al.
This synergistic effect could be explained by studying interactions between the minimum energy conformations of Asx and vitamin E derivatives. Kamezaki et al. Thus, intermolecular interactions between the co-encapsulated bioactive are a crucial factor which determines synergistic activity and need to be studied well. Besides, encapsulating biologically active molecules imparting health benefits, the technique could also be exploited to enhance flavors.
In one of the study, xylitol and menthol were co-encapsulated by Santos et al. Overall, lower chewiness, longer duration, and higher intensity of cooling sensation were obtained with microencapsulated system compared to compounds in their free form. Thus, co-encapsulated microcapsules could extend the period of cooling sensation in mouth via controlled release.
A further study could be directed toward the delivery of health-beneficial bioactives in chewing gum Konar et al. Antioxidants, vitamins, essential oils, minerals, or medicines could be delivered by co-encapsulating them in chewing gum, as it is widely consumed and the production conditions are mild, so it offers a hospitable environment for bioactives.
The studies would be required to understand interaction between bioactives and the gum materials and its release profile. Vitamin E, A, and Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 were encapsulated in emulsion stabilized by calcium caseinate in presence of lecithin along with flaxseed oil omega-3 Stratulat et al. Physical stability, recovery level, and antiradical properties of cheese with co-encapsulated bioactives were better for casein-stabilized emulsion with lecithin than in its absence.
Comparable results have been reported in cheddar cheese fortified with co-encapsulated flaxseed oil and vitamin D 3 Stratulat et al. Likewise, Wang et al.
Co-encapsulation of bioactives for food applications | Food Quality and Safety | Oxford Academic
A parameter that they studied was the homogenization speed during emulsion preparation on properties of microcapsules. The emulsion homogenized at lower rpm of or resulted in big droplets while 15 rpm resulted in narrow size distribution. Low surface oil content, high encapsulation yields, and EE was obtained at emulsion homogenization speed of 15 rpm for 15 min Wang et al. Hence, for emulsion-based microencapsulation techniques, this factor plays a key role in determining final stability of co-encapsulated system and core materials.
Marsanasco et al. While SPC:SA with vitamins showed pseudoplastic behavior before pasteurization while viscosity decreased following pasteurization and the behavior was more of a Newtonian fluid. SPC:CaS had values of n flow behavior index lower than 1. Apple juice, milk, and water have a Newtonian behavior while orange juice concentrate and sauces show pseudoplastic property.
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Thus, these liposomes show an enormous potential to be used in different food systems to deliver vitamins or bioactive compounds as they show both type of flow properties. Similar results were obtained while encapsulating vitamin C and E using the same composition of liposomes Marsanasco et al.
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Spray-drying technique provides better stability due to its compact and nonporous structure. While for emulsion-based process, homogenizing speed plays a vital role in determining the stability by affecting particle size. The storage stability and release profile are influenced by the type of ingredients co-encapsulated.
Also, interactions with the wall material enhances or retards the release of active component. Molecular confirmation studies in future will be useful to anticipate synergistic interactions between bioactive. Whey protein-coated Ca-pectinate particles seem to be a promising vehicle for targeted release of probiotic or any antioxidant due to its immanent property to disintegrate in intestine.
Further studies demonstrating the synergistic health benefits in human or animal models will help to generate concrete data and establish the technique in food industry. The future studies are required to be directed toward the evaluation of stability of co-encapsulated bioactive components in the complex food matrix. Shelf-life study of co-encapsulated bioactive in actual food products will confirm the wide applications of the above technique.
Molecular studies on possible interaction between various bioactive ingredients will help decide appropriate combinations with synergistic association. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability are important parameters that are essential for establishing the potential of co-encapsulation in food industry. Such studies performed using in vitro digestion models or simulated environment using human cell lines will shed lights on the competency of co-encapsulating components in imparting health benefits. Sensory studies are another crucial aspect that needs to be focussed upon.
Thus, a lot of research prospects are perceptible and various avenues are yet to be explored showing a great potential for co-encapsulation in food sector. Focus in future research would be mainly targeted toward in vivo studies to fully substantiate the benefits of co-encapsulation of bioactive components. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume 1. Article Contents. Synergistic effects of bioactive components. Applications of co-encapsulation for functional foods. Summary and future research. Co-encapsulation of bioactives for food applications Punit Jatin Chawda. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. John Shi. Correspondence to : John Shi, E-mail: john.
Sophia Xue. Siew Young Quek. Correspondence to : Siew Young Quek. E-mail: sy. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Co-encapsulation of bioactive is an emerging field which shows promising approach to develop functionally active food products.
Open in new tab Download slide. Table 1. Open in new tab. Co-delivery of hydrophobic curcumin and hydrophilic catechin by a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion.
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